History of the Rosary
the Rosary is composed, principally and in substance, of the prayer
of Christ and the Angelic Salutation, that is, the Our Father and the
Hail Mary, it was without doubt the first prayer and the principal devotion
of the faithful and has been in use all through the centuries, from
the time of the apostles and disciples down to the present.
It was only in the year 1214, however, that the Church received the
Rosary in its present form and according to the method we use today.
It was given to the Church by St. Dominic, who had received it from
the Blessed Virgin as a means of converting the Albigensians and other
I will tell you the story of how he received it, which is found in the
very well-known book De Dignitate Psalterii, by Blessed Alan de la Roche.
Saint Dominic, seeing that the gravity of people's sins was hindering
the conversion of the Albigensians, withdrew into a forest near Toulouse,
where he prayed continuously for three days and three nights. During
this time he did nothing but weep and do harsh penances in order to
appease the anger of God. He used his discipline so much that his body
was lacerated, and finally he fell into a coma.
At this point our Lady appeared to him, accompanied by three angels,
and she said, "Dear Dominic, do you know which weapon the Blessed Trinity
wants to use to reform the world?" "Oh, my Lady," answered Saint Dominic,
"you know far better than I do, because next to your Son Jesus Christ
you have always been the chief instrument of our salvation."
Then our Lady replied, "I want you to know that, in this kind of warfare,
the principal weapon has always been the Angelic Psalter, which is the
foundation-stone of the New Testament. Therefore, if you want to reach
these hardened souls and win them over to God, preach my Psalter."
So he arose, comforted, and burning with zeal for the conversion of
the people in that district, he made straight for the cathedral. At
once unseen angels rang the bells to gather the people together, and
Saint Dominic began to preach.
At the very beginning of his sermon, an appalling storm broke out, the
earth shook, the sun was darkened, and there was so much thunder and
lightning that all were very much afraid. Even greater was their fear
when, looking at a picture of our Lady exposed in a prominent place,
they saw her raise her arms to heaven three times to call down God's
vengeance upon them if they failed to be converted, to amend their lives,
and seek the protection of the holy Mother of God.
God wished, by means of these supernatural phenomena, to spread the
new devotion of the holy Rosary and to make it more widely known.
At last, at the prayer of Saint Dominic, the storm came to an end, and
he went on preaching. So fervently and compellingly did he explain the
importance and value of the Rosary that almost all the people of Toulouse
embraced it and renounced their false beliefs. In a very short time
a great improvement was seen in the town; people began leading Christian
lives and gave up their former bad habits.
by the Holy Spirit, instructed by the Blessed Virgin as well as by his
own experience, Saint Dominic preached the Rosary for the rest of his
life. He preached it by his example as well as by his sermons, in cities
and in country places, to people of high station and low, before scholars
and the uneducated, to Catholics and to heretics.
The Rosary, which he said every day, was his preparation for every sermon
and his little tryst with our Lady immediately after preaching.
One day he had to preach at Notre Dame in Paris, and it happened to
be the feast of St. John the Evangelist. He was in a little chapel behind
the high altar prayerfully preparing his sermon by saying the Rosary,
as he always did, when our Lady appeared to him and said: "Dominic,
even though what you have planned to say may be very good, I am bringing
you a much better sermon."
Saint Dominic took in his hands the book our Lady proffered, read the
sermon carefully and, when he had understood it and meditated on it,
he gave thanks to her.
When the time came, he went up into the pulpit and, in spite of the
feast day, made no mention of Saint John other than to say that he had
been found worthy to be the guardian of the Queen of Heaven. The congregation
was made up of theologians and other eminent people, who were used to
hearing unusual and polished discourses; but Saint Dominic told them
that it was not his desire to give them a learned discourse, wise in
the eyes of the world, but that he would speak in the simplicity of
the Holy Spirit and with his forcefulness.
So he began preaching the Rosary and explained the Hail Mary word by
word as he would to a group of children, and used the very simple illustrations
which were in the book given him by our Lady.
Blessed Alan, according to Carthagena, mentioned several other occasions
when our Lord and our Lady appeared to Saint Dominic to urge him and
inspire him to preach the Rosary more and more in order to wipe out
sin and convert sinners and heretics. In another passage Carthagena
says, "Blessed Alan said our Lady revealed to him that, after she had
appeared to Saint Dominic, her blessed Son appeared to him and said,
'Dominic, I rejoice to see that you are not relying on your own wisdom
and that, rather than seek the empty praise of men, you are working
with great humility for the salvation of souls.
"'But many priests want to preach thunderously against the worst kinds
of sin at the very outset, failing to realize that before a sick person
is given bitter medicine, he needs to be prepared by being put into
the right frame of mind to really benefit by it.
"'That is why, before doing anything else, priests should try to kindle
a love of prayer in people's hearts and especially a love of my Angelic
Psalter. If only they would all start saying it and would really persevere,
God in his mercy could hardly refuse to give them his grace. So I want
you to preach my Rosary."'
things, even the holiest, are subject to change, especially when they
are dependent on man's free will. It is hardly to be wondered at, then,
that the Confraternity of the Holy Rosary only retained its first fervour
for a century after it was instituted by Saint Dominic. After this it
was like a thing buried and forgotten.
Doubtless, too, the wicked scheming and jealousy of the devil were largely
responsible for getting people to neglect the Rosary, and thus block
the flow of God's grace which it had drawn upon the world.
Thus, in 1349 God punished the whole of Europe with the most terrible
plague that had ever been known. Starting in the east, it spread throughout
Italy, Germany, France, Poland and Hungary, bringing desolation wherever
it went, for out of a hundred men hardly one lived to tell the tale.
Big cities, towns, villages and monasteries were almost completely deserted
during the three years that the epidemic lasted.
This scourge of God was quickly followed by two others, the heresy of
the Flagellants and a tragic schism in 1376.
Later on, when these trials were over, thanks to the mercy of God, our
Lady told Blessed Alan to revive the former Confraternity of the Holy
Rosary. Blessed Alan was one of the Dominican Fathers at the monastery
at Dinan, in Brittany. He was an eminent theologian and a famous preacher.
Our Lady chose him because, since the Confraternity had originally been
started in that province, it was fitting that a Dominican from the same
province should have the honour of re-establishing it.
Blessed Alan began this great work in 1460, after a special warning
from our Lord. This is how he received that urgent message, as he himself
One day when he was offering Mass, our Lord, who wished to spur him
on to preach the holy Rosary, spoke to him in the Sacred Host. "How
can you crucify me again so soon?" Jesus said. "What did you say, Lord?"
asked Blessed Alan, horrified. "You crucified me once before by your
sins," answered Jesus, "and I would willingly be crucified again rather
than have my Father offended by the sins you used to commit. You are
crucifying me again now because you have all the learning and understanding
that you need to preach my Mother's Rosary, and you are not doing it.
If you only did that, you could teach many souls the right path and
lead them away from sin. But you are not doing it, and so you yourself
are guilty of the sins that they commit."
This terrible reproach made Blessed Alan solemnly resolve to preach
the Rosary unceasingly.
Our Lady also said to him one day to inspire him to preach the Rosary
more and more, "You were a great sinner in your youth, but I obtained
the grace of your conversion from my Son. Had such a thing been possible,
I would have liked to have gone through all kinds of suffering to save
you, because converted sinners are a glory to me. And I would have done
that also to make you worthy of preaching my Rosary far and wide."
Saint Dominic appeared to Blessed Alan as well and told him of the great
results of his ministry: he had preached the Rosary unceasingly, his
sermons had borne great fruit and many people had been converted during
He said to Blessed Alan, "See what wonderful results I have had through
preaching the Rosary. You and all who love our Lady ought to do the
same so that, by means of this holy practice of the Rosary, you may
draw all people to the real science of the virtues."
Briefly, then, this is the history of how Saint Dominic established
the holy Rosary and of how Blessed Alan de la Roche restored it.
From the time Saint Dominic established
the devotion to the holy Rosary up to the time when Blessed Alan de
la Roche reestablished it in 1460, it has always been called the Psalter
of Jesus and Mary. This is because it has the same number of Hail Marys
as there are psalms in the Book of the Psalms of David. Since simple
and uneducated people are not able to say the Psalms of David, the Rosary
is held to be just as fruitful for them as David's Psalter is for others.
Blessed Alan de la Roche re-established this devotion, the voice of
the people, which is the voice of God, gave it the name of the Rosary,
which means "crown of roses." That is to say that every time people
say the Rosary devoutly they place on the heads of Jesus and Mary 153
white roses and sixteen red roses. Being heavenly flowers, these roses
will never fade or lose their beauty.
Our Lady has approved and confirmed this name of the Rosary; she has
revealed to several people that each time they say a Hail Mary they
are giving her a beautiful rose, and that each complete Rosary makes
her a crown of roses.
So the complete Rosary is a large crown of roses and each chaplet of
five decades is a little wreath of flowers or a little crown of heavenly
roses which we place on the heads of Jesus and Mary. The rose is the
queen of flowers, and so the Rosary is the rose of devotions and the
most important one
by Saint Louis Marie Grignion De Montfort